There are different teeth diseases, each with its different and specific characteristics hence calling for various branches of dentistry. Periodontology is one of the numerous branches of dental medicine. This particular branch of dental medicine is specifically concerned with periodontal. Periodontium are tooth tissues. This field of dentistry specializes in tackling diseases that affect these tissues. Periodontal diseases affect many parts of the teeth. These parts include the periodontal ligaments that connect gums, and is in some cases called gingiva, the cementum and the alveolar bone. The two primary diseases that affect the tissues are the periodontitis and the Gingivitis. Gingivitis causes the inflammation of the gums while priodontitis is a more relentless type of a disease. There are several conditions and factors that cause these diseases. They include poor oral hygiene, bridges & crowns and fillings. Additionally, firm and compact teeth, plaque, calculus and some genetic factors play a role as causative agents of gingivitis and periodontitis. The field of Periodontology has experienced increased use of laser in the treatment and reduction of pain in patients who suffer the jaw and teeth diseases. Also used for the same purpose is the regeneration of tissues and guided bone which are much more advanced and sophisticated.